2. Prior Art¶
Service management is not a particularly new subject. While sysvinit and systemd have garnered much of the attention span of the GNU/Linux world, with upstart having previously seen some interest, other competitors exist. These are described below:
2.1. IBM System Resource Controller¶
A simple system for running subsystems which are comprised of subservers (i.e. daemons.) Restarts subsystems automatically and provides notification of failure.
2.2. The Daemontools Family¶
daemontools is a service supervisor implemented by D.J. Bernstein in the late 90s, which is designed in line with Bernstein’s principles of good software. These principles have led to a simple and elegant result. Since then, derivatives and reimplementations along similar lines have appeared. Some of these took on the question of broader-scale service/system management (as opposed to just supervision of daemons), e.g. dependency management. A few among the daemontools family are listed below:
- runit by Gerrit Pape: Designed from scratch to be useable as a replacement for init altogether. Used by the Void distro of GNU/Linux.
- s6 by Laurent Bercot: Built with particular principles in mind, notably the ability to act as low-level components of a larger-scale service management suite. Accordingly s6-rc has been developed atop, which provides dependency management and the like. Includes a simple scripting language called execline for writing service start scripts in. A solution well-worth considering.
- nosh by Jonathan de Boyne Pollard. Like s6-rc, nosh provides higher-level service management features and is already equipped with a systemd unit-file converter and service descriptions for BSD and Linux. Named for its simple no-shell script interpreter. nosh is probably the best-designed cross-platform system/service manager.
Noted for its use on the Gentoo and Funtoo GNU/Linux distros. Lightweight, written in C and POSIX sh. Provides the traditional feel of init scripts while offering modern functionality.
Apple’s take on system and service management. Combines init, Mach’s mach_init, crond, atd, inetd, and other low-level daemons into one. Previously open-source under the Apache License, now appears to have been closed (something to do with iPhone jailbreaking?), with the most recent code drop being some years old. This is likely to be the nail in the coffin for attempts to port launchd to FreeBSD.
The Service Management Facility of Illumos. System XVI is very similar in design to SMF.